Basic Rules For Verbs
(SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT)
The verb must agree with its subject in number and person
(SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT)
The verb must agree with its subject in number and person
There are six basic kinds of errors in the grammar of a sentence.
☞Error type-1 Subject -verb agreement
☞Error type -2. Errors of modifiers .
Modifiers are words / group of words / phrases in one part of sentence , which modify another part of the sentence.
In correct written English ,the modifier has to be kept as close as possible to the word or clause it modifies.
Ex- bruised and battered, Ravi gave his Car to the mechanic.
Bruised and battered , the car was given to the mechanic by Ravi.
☞Errors type -3 errors in the usage of Pronouns .
The pronouns used in a sentence should agree with their antecedents.
☞Error type – 4 error in the tense of the verbs.
☞Error type – 5 errors of parallelism
☞Error type -6 error in the use of singular words/ idioms and phrases.
Proper use of adverbs , prepositions. Conjunctions. Adjectives.
Q.1 With the advent of YouTube, Facebook, and Flickr, many savvy political consultants undertook revolutionary micro-targeting and get-out-the-vote techniques that enabled political candidates with cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large numbers of money from enthusiastic and committed supporters in a short period of time.
A.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large numbers of money
B.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and be successful in raising large amounts of money
C.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters, succeeding in raising large amounts of money
D.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large amounts of money
E.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large a
Explanation: Option(D) is correct
☞The sentence must be constructed such that corresponding consequences of an action are parallel. Specifically, the sentence should read enabled political candidates with cash-strapped budgets to x and y where x and y are parallel.
☞The phrase to be able to z is redundant and should be replaced by to z
☞ The phrase numbers of money should be amounts of money since number is only used when the object in question can be counted and money cannot be counted (i.e., you do not say 1 money, 2 money, 3 money). Note: By comparison, dollars can be counted (i.e., you would say 1 dollar, 2 dollars, 3 dollars) and as a result, we would say: the number of dollars.
a.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and can be shortened as follows: to reach; large numbers of money is not grammatically correct since money itself cannot be counted and, as a result, amount should be used instead
b.the phrase to reach…and be successful is not parallel
c.this sentence is set up such that succeeding modifies reaching voters instead of being a separate action on its own
d.the phrase is parallel (i.e., to reach…[to] succeed); to be able to reach is replaced by the shorter to reach
e.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and should be replaced by to reach
Q.2 With his sub-four minute mile Bannister broke a psychological barrier, inspiring thousands of others to attempt overcoming seemingly insurmountable hurdles.
A.inspiring thousands of others to attempt overcoming
B.inspiring thousands of others to attempt to overcome
C.inspiring thousands of others to overcome
D.and inspired thousands of others to attempt to overcome
E.and inspired thousands of others to attempt overcoming
Explanation: Option(D) is correct
In (A) the word ‘inspiring’ seems incorrectly to refer to the word ‘barrier’; also the expression ‘attempt overcoming’ is unidiomatic.
In D, the correct answer, ‘inspired’ is correctly parallel to ‘broke’, and ‘attempt to overcome’ is idiomatic.
Q.3 An analysis of sixteenth century probate inventories in the major English towns show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or salt cellars.
A.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or
B.show that some artisans and yeomen even owned silver spoons, cups or
C.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups and
D.shows that some artisans and yeomen owned even silver spoons, cups and
E.shows that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or
Explanation – Option(E) is correct
The subject of the sentence is ‘analysis’ and therefore the verb should be the singular ‘shows’. Hence either D or E must be correct.
The word ‘even’ should be in front of the word which it qualifies. The intention is to express surprise that some artisans owned silver, as indicated in E by putting ‘even’ in front of ‘artisans’, and not surprise at the spoons as implied in D.
In E, the correct answer, the word ‘or’ seems preferable because the artisan or yeoman might own any of the items and not necessarily all the items as would be implied by the use of ‘and’.
Q.4 In archaeological terms the university was a latecomer to the town, which was already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of a community of scholars and teachers in the late 12th Century.
A.which was already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of
B.already centuries old by the time we first hear of its establishment of
C.which was centuries old already when we first hear of the establishment of
D.that was already centuries old by the time we first are hearing of the establishing of
E.that was already centuries old by the time we first hear that they had established
Explanation –Option(A) is correct
There is nothing wrong with the use of ‘which’ in choice A, since the description correctly refers to the work in front of the comma. It is better not t spend time worrying over the choice between ‘that’ and ‘which’ – look for other clear-cut problems.
We can eliminate E because the pronoun ‘they’ does not have an antecedent. We can eliminate D because it is too wordy and uses ‘establishing’ when ‘establishment’ would have been better.
We can eliminate C because ‘already’ is in the wrong place. And finally we can eliminate B because the use of ‘its’ makes the sentence less clear than what we have in A
Q5.The United Nations’ Human Development Index takes into account life expectancy, education, as well as income per person
A.into account life expectancy, education, as well as income per person
B.life expectancy, education, as well as income per person into account
C.into account life expectancy and education, as well as income per person
D.into account life expectancy, and education, and income per person
E.life expectancy, education, and income per person in its account
Explanation : Option(C) is correct
The problem with the original sentence is the list: we need to have an ‘and’ at the right point. We can have a list such as ‘a, b, and c’ when we intend the items to have equal weight.
Or we can have a list such as ‘a and b, as well as c’ if the first two items are to be taken together.
But we cannot have a list like this: a, b, as well as c. Nor can we have ‘a and b and c’. Using this information we can eliminate A, B and D.
Of the remaining choices, C is best as E is awkward and brings in an unnecessary ‘its’
Q.6 Ricks has written extensively on not only major figures in English poetry like Milton and Housman, but also on the lyrics of Bob Dylan.
A.on not only major figures in English poetry like Milton, but also on
B.not only on the poetry of such major figures as Milton and Housman, but also on
C.not only on major figures in English poetry like Milton and Housman, but also on
D.on major figures in English poetry like Milton and Housman, as well as
E.on major figures in English poetry such as Milton and Housman, but also on
Explanation: Option(B) is correct
In A the paired conjunctions ‘not only… but also’ are not used with correct parallel phrases: if ‘not only’ is followed by a prepositional phrase, ‘but also’ should also be followed by a preposition. The parallelism is not correct in D either.
The expression ‘such as’ is better than ‘like’ when we are giving examples, and so we can focus on B and E. B is better as the poetry of major figures (not the figures themselves) is contrasted to the lyrics of Dylan. In answer E the ‘but also’ is not correct without a ‘not’ earlier in the sentence.
Q.7 Because chickens lack teeth, they need another way to break apart the food they eat before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they swallow are used to grind their food.
A.before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they swallow are used to grind their food.
B.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they have swallowed is used to grind their food.
C.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they swallow are used to grind their food.
D.before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they have swallowed is used to grind their food.
E.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones they have swallowed are used to grind their food.
Explanation : Option(E) is correct
This question focuses on verb tense and agreement, as well as general rhetorical construction. In this sentence all of the verbs agree with their subjects. However, the phrase before reaching the stomach does not have a clear subject. It appears to modify they, the chickens, instead of food. The present tense verb swallow should be replaced with the present perfect verb have swallowed in order to indicate that the swallowing occurred before the use of the stones.
Q.8 The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.
A.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.
B.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should be paying half the cost of the initial print run of the author’s controversial new book.
C.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.
D.Unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, the publishers insisted the author should pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.
E.Unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, the author was required by the publisher to pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.
Explanation : Option(C) is correct
The subjunctive expression ‘insisted that the author pay’ is correct in C. A, B and D are wrong because they incorrectly insert ‘should’.
E is incorrect because the ‘unwilling to shoulder the entire risk’ is incorrectly attributed to the author (dangling modifier problem).
Q.9 A course of cognitive behavior therapy can be as effective, if not more so, than drug therapy and without the side effects, in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia.
A.as effective, if not more so, than drug therapy and without the side effects, in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia
B.more effective than drug therapy and without the side effects, in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia
C.at least as effective in helping the elderly overcome insomnia as drug therapy, and is without the side effects of drug treatment
D.at least as effective as drug therapy in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia without side effects
E.equally effective as drug therapy in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia without side effects
Explanation : Option(C) is correct
The original version is incorrect because ‘as… as’, is correct, not ‘as… than’. Options B and E change the meaning – we need to convey that CBT is ‘at least as effective’, and so we should consider only C and D.
Although D is shorter, it is not correct because it seems to suggest that insomnia is without side effects. And so the answer is C.
Q.10 Studies show that teachers unconsciously assume that students who regularly perform poorly on assessments have below-average abilities, and in neglecting to provide the academic challenges that would catalyze their intellectual potential, the students often accept this damaging diagnosis and the life limits it implies.
(A) in neglecting to provide the academic challenges that would catalyze their intellectual potential
(B) when they neglect providing the academic challenges that would be catalyzing their intellectual potential
(C) when teachers neglect to provide the academic challenges that would catalyze their students’ intellectual potential
(D) in neglecting in providing the academic challenges that would catalyze their students’ intellectual potential
(E) in being neglectful with respect to providing the academic challenges that would be catalyzing their intellectual potential
Explanation: 3) Split #1: modifier problem. The sentence begins with an independent clause, then a comma and the word “and”, introducing a second independent clause, the main clause of which follows the underlined part. If the underlined part begins with participial phrase, this must modify “the students”, the subject of the second independent clause. This is problematic, because the students don’t “neglect to provide the academic challenges” — that’s a teacher’s job, not a student’s job! Choices (A) & (D) & (E) all have a participial phrase that illogically modifies “the students”, so these are incorrect.
Split #2: choice (B) makes the classic repeated pronouns mistake. “… when they[the teachers] neglect providing the academic challenges that would be catalyzing their [the students’] intellectual potential …” The pronoun “they”/”their” refers to two different antecedents in the same sentence! That’s 100% illegal on the GMAT. (B) is incorrect.
This leaves (C) as the only possible answer.
Q11. Simon Bolivar (1783 – 1830) is remembered in that he led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, like Venezuela and Bolivia, and for instilling the ideals of democracy across the continent.
(A) in that he led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, like Venezuela and Bolivia, and for instilling
(B) to have led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, such as Venezuela and Bolivia, and that he instilled
(C) to have led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, including Venezuela and Bolivia, and having instilled
(D) for leading the independence revolutions in several South American counties, like Venezuela and Bolivia, and to have instilled
(E) for leading the independence revolutions in several South American counties, such as Venezuela and Bolivia, and for instilling
#1: the idiom “P is remembered for doing X” is elegant way to refer to someone’s famous achievement. The constructions “P is remembered in that he did X” and “P is remembered to have done X” are far more awkward and less smooth. This is a problem with (A) & (B) & (C) & (D) all have problems with these.
Split #2: parallelism. The overall structure is “Bolivar is remembered ___ and ___” — those two blanks must have matching grammatical forms. Let’s look at what’s in those slots:
(A) “in that he led … and for instilling” = NOT parallel
(B) “to have led … and that he instilled” = NOT parallel
(C) “to have led … and having instilled” = NOT parallel
(D) “for leading … and to have instilled” = NOT parallel
(E) “for leading … and for instilling” = CORRECT!
From either of these splits, we see that (E) is the only possible answer.
“A pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun”.
(I, we, you, he, she, it, they) are called personal pronouns because they stand for the three persons.
(i) The person speaking
(ii) The person spoken to, and
(iii) The person spoken of.
‘You’ is both singular and Plural.
|Nominative case (Subjective)||Objective case
|Second Person||you||you||your, yours|
Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated over and over in a paragraph.
Subject Pronoun: (Subjective case)
(I, we, you, he, she, it, they)
Example: She is at work.
‘She’ is main subject of the sentence, hence in the sentence, ‘She’ is the subjective personal pronoun.
Objective pronoun (objective case)
Example: He will meet us later.
‘Us’ is the objective personal pronoun, as it is the object of the verb ‘meet.’
Possessive pronoun (possessive case)
Example: That is our clubhouse.
‘Our’ shows the possession of the object ‘clubhouse’.
Example: He went to the market.
He is used for male gender.
Other examples – (his, him, he etc.)
Example: She is doing the laundry.
‘she’ is used for female gender.
(Her, hers, etc.)
Example: It is important to them.
‘It’ is gender neutral as it shows an object,
‘Them’ is also gender neutral as ‘Them’ can consists of both genders.
Others gender neutral pronouns are – (Their, they, its.)
Singular Pronoun – where the pronoun is only referring to one specific Noun.
Example: That book belongs to me.
Plural Pronoun – where the pronoun is used to refer to a number of nouns.
Example: That is Their book, not yours.
“They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same Noun.”
Example: I told myself not to bet all my money on one horse.
Example: The robber hurt himself chasing me through the alley.
“Reflexive pronouns are those which are used to indicate a noun which has been used in an earlier part of the same sentence.
(myself, themselves, yourself, ourselves, herself, himself, itself.)
Example: She blamed herself for the accident.
He is himself today.
“These pronouns are used to emphasize a Noun or pronoun.
(myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves and ourselves.)
Example: He himself is his worst critic.
“These pronouns act as appositives of nouns or pronouns for the sake of emphasis,”
Example: You yourself wrote those words.
This request came from the employee themselves.
They themselves know that the Prank was in bad taste.
Avoid reporting things that you yourself haven’t witnessed.
“Demonstrative pronouns are used to show or identify one or a number of nouns that may be far or near in distance or time.
They are only four in number (This, that, these, those)
This, that → Singular demonstrative pronoun
These, those → Plural demonstrative pronouns.
Example: That is a beautiful house.
They can also be used to show an unspecified quantity in a sentence.
Example: These were made by me.
(These is showing an unspecified quantity of something that was made by a person.)
Example: Everyone remembers those days.
(Those is showing a particular time or period of days in the past, it is being used in place of a noun that could be – school, summer, college etc.)
Example: This is what he is charging.
This is used as pronoun in place of a number.
These pronouns point out someone or something.
They are identical in form to demonstrative adjective/determiners.
The difference is that…
→ A demonstrative pronoun stands alone (because it is a substitute for a noun or noun phrase)
→ But a demonstrative adjective is accompanied by the noun it modifies.
Example: She gave me this gift.
(This – demonstrative adjective)
I like this.
(This – demonstrative pronoun)
(More example of demonstrative pronoun)
These are my children.
That is a good idea.
The streets of Delhi are more crowded than those of Mumbai.
“These pronouns do stand for some person or thing, but we don’t know for exactly whom.”
When we say, “somebody stole my watch.”
(We don’t know to whom the word ‘somebody’ refers to. The word ‘somebody’ is an indefinite pronoun.
Example: One should speak the truth.
Somebody immediately called the doctor.
Anybody can solve this problem.
Nobody was present.
Many are called, but few are chosen.
Do good to others.
(Few, all, some, none, everything- indefinite pronouns)
“These Pronouns refer to individual elements in a group or a pair, one individual at a time.”
Example: Each of the boys gets a prize.
Either of these roads leads to the railway station.
Either of you can go.
Neither of the accusations is true.
You may bring any of your friends
None of our students failed last year.
Each, either, neither are called distributive pronouns because they refer to persons or things, one at a time.
Each →used to denote every one of a number of persons or things taken singly.
Either means the one or the other of two.
Neither means not the one nor the other of two.
It is negative of either.
Either and Neither should be used only in speaking of two persons or things.
When more than two are spoken of (Any, No one, and none) should be used.
Each and one really belong to the subject, Other and another are objects, but Each other and one another have become compound pronouns, (and are called reciprocal pronouns) and are rarely separated even by a preposition)
Example: The brothers quarreled with each other.
They all gave evidence against one another.
Jamie and Jack always sit beside each other in break.
They haven’t seen one another since last year.
These pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun.
These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whose, whichever and that.
Example: The driver who Ran the stop sign was careless.
Which and that are generally used for objects.
Who and whom are used for people and whose is used to show possession.
Example: she will choose the color which looks good on everyone
She is complaining to whoever she comes across nowadays.
There is a car in the parking lot that someone has painted a bright pink.
Is there anyone here whose mobile phone has a signal?
I met Hari who had just returned.
I have found the pen which I lost.
There is the book That you lent me.
Who, whom, which and what are interrogative pronouns as they are used to ask questions about a person or object that we do not know about.
Compounds of these words are made by attaching (–ever) to the words to strengthen the emphasis on the word.
Example: which one would you like?
What is your Name?
Who will be managing the bullet?
Whom did you tell about this?
Whoever could have done this?
Whichever one will you choose?
‘Who’ is always the subject of the verb.
‘Whom’ is never the subject of the verb.
It is object of the verb.
It is used to show the person to or for whom the action is being done
Example: whom were you meeting with?
☞1. Since a personal pronoun works in place of a noun, the number, gender and person of the pronoun must be according to the noun only.
Ex.- Ram has lost his books. (Not their)
She loves his husband. (Incorrect)
She loves her husband. (Correct)
☞2. When two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘AND’ the Pronoun for them always in the plural number.
Ex.- Mohan and Sohan have lost his books. (Incorrect)
Mohan and Sohan have lost their books. (Correct)
☞3. When two or more singular nouns joined by ‘AND’ are preceded by ‘EACH’ and ‘EVERY’ the pronoun must be singular.
Ex.- Every student and every teacher took his or her seat.
Each of Ram and Shyam has done his work.
Each man and each boy in the party has got his share.
☞4. When a singular nouns and a plural noun are combined by ‘OR’, ‘EITHER’ OR ‘NEITHER’ NOR the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence and the pronoun must be in the plural number.
Ex.- Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message.
☞5. When two or more singular nouns are joined by Either OR, neither nor the pronouns is always in the singular
Ex.- Ram or Mohan should invest his money in some business.
Neither Ram nor Shyam confessed his guilt
Either Sita or Kamla forgot to take her prize.
☞6. Either or neither are always used in relation to two things or two persons for more than two ‘ANY’, or ‘NONE’ must be used.
Ex.- Either of the two girls can pay for it.
Neither of the two brothers has been selected.
Any one of the employees can claim it.
None of the students of this class has passed.
☞7. When in a sentence ‘one’ is used as the subject all the pronouns in the sentence must be changed into ‘one’ or one’s and not his, her or him.
Ex.-One should keep one’s promise.
One should do one’s duty.
One must finish one’s task in time.
☞8. When any pronoun functions as the complement of the verb ‘To be’, it is always in the nominative case.
Ex.- It is me who have to go. (Incorrect)
It is I who have to go. (Correct)
It is him who is to blame. (Incorrect)
It is he who is to blame. (Correct)
It was he who could solve the problem Easily.
☞9. Whenever any pronoun functions as an object to a verb or a preposition, it is in the objective case.
Ex.- It is for he to consider. (Incorrect)
It is for him to consider. (Correct)
Ask he to go. (Incorrect)
Ask him to go. (Correct)
☞10. When two singular nouns joined by AND denote the same person or thing the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. The article ‘THE’ is placed before the first Noun.
Ex.- The accounts officer and treasures should be careful in his work of keeping accounts.
☞11. When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective case, it must be in the objective or accusative case.
Ex.- These clothes are for you and me. (not I)
☞12. A pronoun should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with Let.
Ex.- Let him go to his office
Let her submit the records in time.
☞13. While confessing a fault (or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
I, you and he are in the wrong and will be punished.
[First person first, second person next and third person last]
☞14. While expressing a positive idea or praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
You, He and I will get an award for the good work we have done.
[Second person (2), third person (3), and first person (1)]
You, he and I have finished the work.
Ram, I and you have finished our studies. (Incorrect)
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. (Correct)
☞15. After ‘BUT’, ‘EXCEPT’, ‘BETWEEN’ and ‘LET’ the pronoun is used in objective case where as after such as in’ the subjective case
Ex.- Everyone laughed but I. (Incorrect)
Everyone laughed but me. (Correct)
Now attended the meeting except he. (Incorrect)
Now attended the meeting except him. (Correct)
Let we laugh away our sorrows. (Incorrect)
Let us laugh away our sorrows. (Correct)
This is between you and I. (Incorrect)
This is between you and me. (Correct)
They do not have a lining far such a person as me. (Incorrect)
They do not have a liking for such a person as I. (Correct)
☞16. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree.
‘Any’ is used in Negative or interrogative sentences.
Ex.- I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
I shall read any book. (Incorrect)
I shall read some book. (Correct)
☞17. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, drink, oversleep, overreach, Revenge, present etc. when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them.
Ex.- He absented from the class. (Incorrect)
He absented himself from the class. (Corrected)
He presented himself before the manager.
He absented himself from the office today.
☞18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole-
Ex.- The Jury gave its verdict.
The Jury were divided in their opinions.
☞19. (a) Each other is used about two persons.
Ex.- The two brothers disliked each other.
Romeo and Juliet loved each other.
The two children quarreled with each other.
(b) One another is used about more than two-
Ex.- Good boys do not quarrel with one another.
All the students of the class are friendly, they like one another.
☞20. The pronouns who, whom, whose are generally used for persons
Who – Nominative case
Whom – Objective case
Whose – Possessive case
Ex.- Shikha is the student who got an award.
They are the thieves whom the police caught.
This is the student whose certificates are lost.
☞21. Use of ‘WHICH’
(a) For infants, small animals and objects.
Ex.- This is the baby which was lost in the theatre.
This is the dog which my friend bought from the U.S.
(b) When selection is expressed.
Ex.- Which of these television sets do you want to purchase?
(c) To refer to a sentence
Ex.- He was said to be drunk, which was not true.
☞22. Uses of ‘THAT’
(a) For persons, lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number.
Ex.- This is the girl that failed in the exam.
This is the Radio that I bought Yesterday.
(b) As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned.
Ex.- The weather of Hyderabad is for better than Chennai. (Wrong)
The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of Chennai. (Right)
English Short Notes:Pronouns Rules
Here we are providing the short notes on English topic (Noun), which will help you to revise whole syllabus day by day…!!!
Shortcut Rule 1 : We should use the personal pronouns in the order of 231 for good results ( I mean, Second Person, Third Person, First Person).
The order 123 (First Person, Second Person and Third Person) is also possible when we admit guilt.
Shortcut Rule 2 : A Pronoun in the nominative form should be compared with the same form of the pronoun.
Shortcut Rule 3 : A Pronoun in the objective case is used after “Let / Between / Any Preposition”
Shortcut Rule 4 : When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it should be used in the singular form.
Shortcut Rule 5 : When two singular nouns are joined by “and”, refer to the same person, the pronoun used in their place should be singular in form.
Shortcut Rule 6 : A singular pronoun should be used when two singular nouns are joined by either or / neither nor
Shortcut Rule 7 : A pronoun in the plural form should be used when two nouns of different members are joined by “or” or “nor”.
Shortcut Rule 8 : The distributive pronouns “Either / Neither / None / Any / No one” are used with singular verbs.
Either / Neither ……………………Used for two Person / Things
None / No one / Any ……………. Used for more than two person / things.
Any ……………………….Used for more than two persons / things. Have a look at some
Shortcut Rule 9 : The Reciprocal pronouns “Each other / One another”
Each other – For two persons
One another – For more than two persons.
The two sister hate each other.
The five brother love one another.
Shortcut Rule 10 : The indefinite pronoun “One” should be used as “One’s” for its possessive case.
Shortcut Rule 11 : The verbs such as “Hurt / Cheat / Prostrate / Introduce / Present / Absent / Satisfy / Prepare / Enjoy / Avail of” are followed by either “an” object or “a” reflexive pronoun. (Myself / Ourselves / Yourself / Yourselves) (Himself / Herself / Itself / Themselves)
Shortcut Rule 12 : The use of Relative Pronouns :
Who…………….. for Persons
Which ……………..for Things.
That …………….. is used both for persons and things.
Shortcut Rule 13 : The word “Who” as a relative pronoun is used in the nominative case, takes a verb.
The word “Whom” as a relative pronoun is used in the objective case (takes no verb)
Shortcut Rule 14 : Agreement of the verb with its antecedent in number and person
Shortcut Rule 15 : If a pronoun is to be placed after “to be”, the pronoun in the subjective case is used.
Rules and Examples: Pronouns
Prepositions of Time / Place at, in, on.
|At 4:30 pm||in March||on Monday|
|At 3 o’clock||In Winter||On 6 March|
|At noon||In the summer||On 22 Dec.2012|
|At dinnertime||In 1990||On Christmas Day|
|At bedtime||In the next century||On your birthday|
|At the moment||In the future||On New Year’s Eve|
Other Important Prepositions: –
|during||while in||during the film,during the war, during my stay|
|for||for two days, for an hour|
|from / to||from Saturday to Monday, from 5 to 9|
|between||the time period from one to another||between 1986 and 2012, between Saturday and Monday|
|until/till||before a certain time||until/till Sunday,5 o’clock|
|by||at the least||by Tuesday, by next month, by tomorrow|
|to||movement towards||to school, to work, to the station|
|into||movement towards inside something||into the cinema, into the car|
|out of||to leave a place/a thing||out of the cinema,out of the car|
|by||near/next to/beside||LINK stand by me, by the lake|
|through||through the tunnel, through the room|
|across||opposite ends||across the river, across the street|
|against||against the wall, against the door|
|into||movement towards inside something||into the cinema, into the car|
|accompanied||with||anything having no life|
|accompanied||by||anything having life|
|agree||to||a proposal or plan|
|adapted||for||a course, because of one’s nature|
|apply||for||a position or for something|
|compare||with||to bring out similar qualities|
|confer||on||meaning to give to|
|confer||with||meaning to talk to|
|correspond||to||a thing, denoting similarity|
|correspond||with||meaning to write to|
|confide||in||meaning to put faith in|
|confide||to||meaning to commit to one’s keeping|
|employed||at||a certain place or salary|
|employed||by||a certain person|
|proceed||with||a matter begun|
Kinds of Noun: =
Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.
What are Para jumbles?
Para jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. It’s up to you to untie this knot and rearrange the sentences so that they logically make sense.
The approaches for Jumbled Paragraph: –
(1). Establish Link Between Two Sentences and Then Examine the Options Suppose you establish the link ‘BA’. The given options are:
Now you are left with option (c) and (d) to examine.
(2). Transition Words
Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and connect the sentences logically.
List of transition words- again, as well as, besides,
furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all,
(3). Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns are (he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc.)
Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc.
Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence.
(4). Demonstrative Pronouns
The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.
Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase.
Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.
(5). Acronym Approach
Full form vs. short form:
In PJ we encounter full and short names sometimes acronyms of some term or institution.
Example-World Trade Organization – WTO
Dr. Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh
Karl Marx – Marx
President George W. Bush – President bush or the president
The rule is that if both full form, as well as short form, is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing the short form.
(6). Articles Approach
Articles can be divided into two categories –
When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence.
If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun, then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.
(7) Signal/Indicating Word List
Writers use transitions to link their ideas logically.
These transitions or signal words are clues that can help you figure out what the sentence actually means and its sequence.
(a) Cause and Effect Signals
Look for words or phrases explicitly indicating that one thing causes another or logically determines another.
Accordingly, in order to, because, so…that, consequently, therefore, given, thus
hence. when…then, if…then
(b) Support Signal Words
Look for the words or phrases supporting a given sentence.
These words containing sentences will not be the opening sentence. These sentences will follow immediately the sentence supported.
Furthermore, Additionally, Also, And, Too, as well, besides, indeed, likewise, moreover
(c) Contrast Signals
Look for function words or phrases (conjunctions, sentence adverbs, etc.) that explicitly indicate a contrast between one idea and another.
Albeit, Nevertheless, Although, Nonetheless, But, Notwithstanding, Despite, on the contrary
even though, on the other hand, however, rather than, In contrast, Still, In spite of, While, Instead of, yet
Sentence completion questions are one of two types on the English section of the Competitive exams. Questions will sometimes ask you to fill in one blank, sometimes two. The following tips will help you score well when you have to answer these questions on test day:
(1) Make sure you read the sentence very carefully. Look for important words that indicate where the sentence is going. Is it going along the same train of thought? Or, is there a shift in direction. Remember the following words and what they indicate and you’ll do better on the sentence completion portion of the SSC/BANKING:
(2) Before you look at the answer choices, try to come up with a word you would use to complete the sentence. When you’re doing this, you can try to use a big word, but it’s much preferable to use the first simple word that comes to your mind. Once you think of a word that would complete the sentence, you can then check the answer choices to see if there’s either that exact word or one with a similar meaning. (If you have a dual-blank sentence completion question, try to come up with words for both blanks. If you cannot, coming up with a word for one of the blanks will help you then use process of elimination.)
(3) If you can’t figure out a word to put in the blank, determine if the correct word has a positive or negative connotation. Look at the example below to see how this would work:
Rohan used to be so obsequious to anyone he felt threatened by, but now that he stands up for himself people think he’s ____________.
If you knew the definition of obsequious, you’d known it means “excessively eager to please or obey.” It’s a negative word, and the word but in the sentence means there’s a shift in direction in the sentence. Even if you didn’t know the definition of obsequious, you should be able to figure out that it’s a negative word by the context in which it’s used.
(4) Never choose an answer in a dual-blank question just because one of the word choices fits. The test-makers deliberately put in an answer choice where one of the word choices fits perfectly while the other one is incorrect. Make sure both words fit and don’t fall into this trap.
(5) Make sure you check all of the answer choices before you choose an answer. Sometimes the test-makers provide an answer choice that could be correct, that is, if there were no better choices. Most of the time, though, there will be a choice that’s perfect, not just OK.
If you follow these tips, you’ll do quite well on the sentence completion portion of the BANK/SSC Exam.
Here are Some Example Questions for practice and to understand these TRICKS in better/effective way.
Explanation: Although” sets up a contrast between what has occurred–success on some issues–and what can be expected to occur–success for the whole talks. Hence, the parties are reluctant to express optimism. The common word “reluctant” is not offered as an answer choice, but a synonym–reticent–is. The answer is (E)
Explanation: And” in the sentence indicates that the missing adjective is similar in meaning to “opprobrious,” which is very negative. Now, vituperative–the only negative word–means “abusive.” Hence, the answer is (B).
Explanation: Since the House has the votes to pass the bill or motion, the President would be wise to compromise and make the best of the situation. The answer is (E).
Explanation: The sentence has no linking words (such as because, although, etc.). Hence, the phrase following the semicolon is in apposition to the missing word–it defines or further clarifies the missing word. Now, writing filled with circumlocutions is aptly described as prolix. The answer is (A).
Explanation : (C) and (E) are gone because they’re positive words. .(B)doesn’t work because the clue is “refused to dispute.” That doesn’t work with indecisive. For the same reason,(D) doesn’t work either. So the best answer is option A.
Q.The subtle shades of meaning, and still subtler echoes of association, make language an instrument which scarcely anything short of genius can wield with ____ and ____ .
A.confidence – aloofness
B.definiteness – certainty
C.sincerity – hope
D.conservatism – alacrity
Option(B) is correct
Explanation :The sentence suggests that language is something very difficult to handle; it almost requires a genius to handle it with skill. Therefore we choose two words that indicate ‘skill’ in an effective use of language. Also, the use of the word ‘subtle’ indicates that language is not obvious, and it is, therefore, hard to be precise – hence definiteness and certainty.
(aloofness = keeping apart, arrogant; alacrity= speed and eagerness; eloquence = ability to speak well)
A.ideas – pluralistic
B.predilections – inimical
C.aversions – hostile
D.impulses – amicable
Explanation: Option(B) is correct
Read the sentence and see whether you can suggest a word of your own for one of the blanks. It sounds as though the meeting was doomed because the temper of the times was unsuitable. This would suggest that either hostile or inimical would be best for the second blank. Then it is unlikely that he would arrange a meeting in keeping with his own aversions; he would do so in keeping with his own inclinations
(pluralistic = including many aspects or cultures; predilections = tendencies, inclinations; inimical = hostile; amicable = friendly; maxims = short expressions of guiding principles; salacious = scandalous)
Explanation: Option(B) is correct
The man has to be liberated from ‘earthly’ or ‘materialistic’ bondage and he should be united with ‘spiritual’ bondage, and hence ‘spiritual’ in option d would distort the sentence.
When man’s life is materialistic , God’s abode should be the opposite of ‘materialistic’. But ‘permanent’ does not suggest that. Whereas ‘earthly’ and ‘transcendental’ are antonyms and are the most appropriate word in the given context.
Explanation : Option(C) is correct
The part after the semicolon gives the clue. It states that they were used to watching things that get over fast, and therefore the cricket match seemed interminable (never ending). None of the other words is about the time factor except ‘evanescent’ which means short-lived and would not fit the sense.
(inconsequential = unimportant; implausible = cannot be believed)
A.argues – encouraged
B.maintains – trained
C.contends – predisposed
D.fears – taught
Explanation: Option(C) is correct
The words ‘in the same way’ shows that we are looking for parallel ideas.
Hence, if we ‘inherit’ a certain tendency, then, in the same way, we will inherit another tendency. Either ‘predisposed’ or ‘genetically programmed’ would fit. But since the latter is paired with ‘demurs’ which means hesitates or refuses, this is inappropriate. Contents, which means ‘argues’ is a better choice.
Cloze test for SSC CGL, SSC CPO
In Cloze passages the candidate is given a text passage with some words removed. The candidate has to replace the missing words from the options given to solve the question correctly. A Cloze test consists of a text passage with some certain word removed (cloze text). Its a mixture comprehension and fill in the blanks type of questions, since you of are provided with a passage with certain words missing from it. To solve cloze test correctly, you are expected to have a strong command over the language and grammar, along with good vocabulary.
–: a preposition following a noun, adjective or verb. (Example: good at languages)
-: a prepositional phrase. (Example: in spite of )
-: an adverb. ( Example: He moved to Mumbai two years ago )
-: a connector. (Example: First, he arrived; then he sat down; finally, he left.)
-: a conjunction. (Example: Although he is seven, he can speak eight languages)
-: a auxiliary verb . (Example: He has won 2 contests)
-: an article or some other kind of determiner. (Example: I have no time)
-: a pronoun , either subject or object. (Example : it is easier to know)
-: a comparative or superlative involved? (Example: she’s taller than me)
All the three options are synonyms of each other. it may be difficult to do you decide which one is the correct answer?
In English language, some words are used more frequently as a combination. The words ‘quick’ and ‘chat’ are used together frequently rather than swift chat or prompt chat . Therefore ‘quick’ is your answer.
Try the above tips and tricks on the following Cloze test questions. Remember to tell us how many answers you got correct and did the above tips and tricks on cloze passage helped you understand and solve the problem easily.
Tibet (1) up images of a mystic land. Snow-capped mountain peaks pierce the blue sky and fierce chilly winds sweep the rolling grasslands. Maroon-robed Buddhist monks pray in remote monasteries and (2) horsemen pound the rugged earth. People in this high plateau perform punishing rituals like prostrating hundreds of miles in tattered clothes on pilgrimage. Spirits, spells and flying apparitions are part of the Tibetan world. In short, Tibet remains an exotica. Such images are largely the result of books by Western travellers and explorers in the last century, which helped in keeping the mystique alive. And when the Communist rulers took over Tibet in the 1950s and began (3) Chinese language and culture on the people, Tibet’s own history started to (4) in the background. Thus, the only books available in English to Tsering Wangmo Dhompa as a young girl growing up in India and Nepal as a refugee (5) those written by Westerners, and so she came to view the country as a forbidden land, a place where fantasy and fable collaborated against a dramatic backdrop of mountains, black magic and people with strange customs and appearances.
Learn to change the direct speech of statement or assertive sentence into indirect speech.
Read the following sentences :
In the sentence A the speech of the boy is quoted in the exact words of the speaker.
The speech quoted in the exact words of the speaker is a Direct Speech or Direct Narration. It is always written within inverted commas.
Note: The direct speech -contains :
In the sentence B the speech is reported in a narrative form without quoting the
exact words of the speaker.
The speech reported in narrative form without quoting the exact words of
the speaker is an Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.
Note : The reporting speech and the reported speech are joined by a linking
word and the commas are omitted. -Remember: Narration is of two kinds. They are:
(a) Direct Narration or Direct speech
(h) Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech
[i]Assertive Sentence or Statement
☞1.If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in the reported speech is not changed.
Direct : Nabil says, “I am fine.”
Indirect : Nabil says that he is fine.
Direct : The man says, “I shall do it.”
Indirect : The man says that he will do it.
Direct : He says, “I went there yesterday.”
Indirect I : He says that he went there yesterday.
Direct : He will say, “I am ready to go.”
Indirect : He says that he is ready to go.
☞2. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported speech is changed into the corresponding past form.
Nadin said, “I am fine.’
Nadin said that he was fine.
He said, “I want to go.”
He said that he wanted to go.
He said, “I am reading a book.”
He said that he was reading a book.
He said, “I have learnt my lesson.”
He said that he had learnt his lesson.
He said, “I have been learning English.”
He said that he had been teaming English. .
He said, “I had reached the school before the bell rang”
He said that he had reached the school before the bell rang.
He said, “I can do the work.
He said that he could do the work.
He said, .”I shall do it.” .
He said that he would do it.
He said, “I shall have done it.”
He said that he would have done it.
☞3. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb of the reported speech is in the past indefinite tense, it (the verb in the reported speech) is changed into the past perfect tense.
Direct : Urmi said, “I went to school.
Indirect : Urmi said that she had gone to school.
Direct : He said, “I wrote the book.”
Indirect ‘ : He said that he had written the book.
Direct : ‘Kabir said to me, “I was sick.”
Indirect : Kabir told me (said to me) that he had been sick.
☞4.If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported speech is in the past continuous, it (the verb in the reported speech) is changed into the past perfect continuous tense.
Direct :_ He said, “I was reading a book.”
Indirect : He said that he had been reading a book.
Direct : Shimu said to me, “I was making a research to solve the
Indirect : Shimu told me that she had been making a research to
solve the problem.
-Note: The use of the conjunction that between the reporting speech and the
reported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.
☞5. If the Direct Speech describes a universal truth, constant fact, habitual fact, geographical fact and quotations, the verb in the reported speech remains unchanged:
Direct : The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect : The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
Direct : He said, “My father reads the Holy Quran every morning.”
Indirect : He said that his father reads the Holy Quran every morning.
Direct : Keats said, “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.”
Indirect :Keats I said that a thing of beauty is a joy for ever.
☞6.The First Person of the direct speech is changed into the person the man spoken to and the third person does not have any change:
Direct : Rahman said to Mamun, “Your father will go to my office”
Indirect : Rahman told Mamun that his father would go to his office.
Direct : Salam says to you, “You did not help me.”
Indirect : Salarn tells you that you did not help him.
Direct : They said to us, “He will meet you.”
Indirect : They told us that he would meet us.
Note: If the Reporting Verb has an object, it is not good English to write, “said to him “, It is better to write told us/him etc.
☞7. If the Reported speech has two or more verbs occurring at the same time, the past tense of the verbs is not changed :
Direct : The teacher said, “Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.”
The teacher said that Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept
Indirect : He said, “The children sang, danced and played.”
Direct : He said that the children sang, danced and played.
☞8.Words that express nearness are often changed into the words expressing remoteness:
Thus -so, in that way
Today- that day, the same day
Tomorrow- The next day, the following day
Yesterday -the previous day, the day before
Last night -the previous night, the night before
Change the following sentences into indirect speech :
1.The boy says that his father is working abroad .
[ii] Interrogative Sentence:
Structure of indirect speech
(a) Reporting verb is changed into ask or enquire of.
(b) If or whether is used as a linking word.
(c) The auxiliary verb in the reported speech is used after the subject.
(d) If the sentence begins with who, which, what, how, when, where,
why etc., these are not changed and if or whether is not used.
Note : The indirect speech becomes a statement and no question mark is used.
Nadim said to Nadia, “Are you reading now?”
Nadim asked Nadia (or enquired of) if she was reading then.
The man said to Shaila, “What is your name?”
The man asked Shaila what her name was.
[iii] Imperative Sentence
Structure of indirect speech
He said to me, “Do it now”?
He told me to do it then.
The captain said, “Soldiers, march on”.
The captain commanded the soldiers to march on.
[iv] Optative Sentence
The structure of indirect speech of Optative sentences.
He said to me, “May you be happy”.
He wished that I might be happy.
Mr. Khan said, “May Allah save me”.
Mr. Khan prayed that Allah might save him.
[v] Exclamatory Sentence:
to the sense.
in wonder etc. are used to express the meaning of exclamation. If the
sense of exclamation is not clear, such phrases are not used.
Direct : The man said, “Alas! I am undone”.
Indirect : The man cried out in sorrow that he was undone.
Direct : He said, “Hurrah! We have won the game”.
Indirect : He exclaimed in joy that they had won the game.
Direct : He said to me, “What a funny boy you are”! .
Indirect : He exclaimed in joy that I was a very funny boy.
Direct : He said, “What a fool I am“!
Indirect : He cried out with sorrow that he was a great fool.
[Note: ‘great’ is used before a noun]
Direct : He said, “What a long journey”!
Indirect : He exclaimed that it was a very long journey.
Direct : He said, “Who knew that it would happen”!
Indirect : He said that nobody knew -that it would happen
Direct : He said, “By God! I have never done it”.
Indirect : He swore by God that he had never done it.
Direct : He said, “Had I the wings of a bird!”
Indirect : He wished he had the wings of a bird.
“A word that is used to join words or phrases or sentences is called a conjunction.”
Ex.-God made the country and man made the town.
Three and three make six.
She must work hard, or she will fail.
[(As soon………..As), (Both……..and), (Either………..or), (Neither ……….. Nor), (Lest……….. should), (Not only………but also), (Hardly……….. before or when), (Though ……….yet),
(Whether …………..or), (Scarcely…………… when or before), (No sooner………..than)
Rule-1 when ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, ‘together with’ , ‘No less than’, ‘In addition to’ and ‘Not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ex.-Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. (Incorrect)
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. (Correct)
The teacher, along with the students, were going (Incorrect)
The teacher along with the students, was going (Correct)
Rule-2‘A great many’ is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.
Ex.-A great many students have been declared successful.
Rule-3 If two subjects are joined by ‘Either-Or’, ‘Neither-Nor’, the verb agrees with the subject that is near.
Ex.-Either Ramesh or I are to do this work. (Incorrect)
Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. (Correct)
Neither he nor his friends is reading. (Incorrect)
Neither he nor his friends are reading. (Correct)
Rule-4‘One of’ always takes a plural noun after it.
Ex.-It is one of the important day in my life. (Incorrect)
It is one of the important days in my life. (Correct)
Rule-5 Use of (Not only – but also)
Ram is not only handsome but also intelligent.
(Here one person – two qualities)
Not only India but also Pakistan is poor.
(Here two persons – common quality)
When two subjects are joined by (Not only-but also) the verb must agree with the ‘second subject:
Ex.-Not only the students but also the teacher are playing. (Incorrect)
Not only the students but also the teacher is playing. (Correct)
He ate not only bananas but also apples.
He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Incorrect)
He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Correct)
Rule-6 ‘Scarcely’ and ‘Hardly’ are followed by ‘WHEN’ and not by ‘THAN’.
Ex.-I had Scarcely entered the room WHEN the phone rang.
Hardly had he seen his father when he stopped smoking.
Scarcely had he entered the room when the light came.
Hardly had he reached the school when it began to rain.
Rule-7 ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’ and not by ‘but’.
Ex.-Though he is poor but he is honest (Incorrect)
Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (Correct)
Although he is rich yet he is miser.
Though he is lame yet he can walk fast.
Rule-8 ‘No sooner’ is followed by ‘than’.
Ex.-No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up.
No Sooner did I step out than it started raining.
No Sooner did I see my father than I stop smoking
No Sooner had I reached the station than the train departed.
Rule-9 ‘Lest’ must be followed by ‘should’.
Ex.-Read regularly lest you will fail. (Incorrect)
Read regularly lest you should fail. (Correct)
Run with care lest you should fall.
Rule-10 ‘Such’ is followed by ‘As’.
Ex.-Such a boy as I know is at the party.
He is Such a writer as everybody should read his books.
Rule-11 ‘So’ is followed by ‘That’.
Ex.-He is so weak that he cannot walk.
He is so handsome that every girl will be ready to marry him.
Rule-12 ‘UNLESS’ expresses a condition, It is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘NOT’ is never used with ‘unless’.
Ex.-Unless you do not labor hard, you will not pass (Incorrect)
Unless you labor hard you will not pass (Correct)
Rule-13 ‘Until’ expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus ‘not’ should never be used with it.
Ex.-Wait here until I do not return (Incorrect)
Wait here until I Return.(Correct)
Rule-14 ‘Since’ indicates a point of time and ‘for’ stands for the length of time.
Ex.-He had been reading the book for two hours.
It has been raining since Monday last.
Ex.-15 ‘As if’ is used to convey the sense of pretension.
When ‘as if’ is used in this sense, ‘WERE’ is used in all cases, Even with third person singular.
Ex.-He behaves as if he was king. (Incorrect)
He behaves as if he were a king (Correct)
Rule-16 ‘BOTH’ is followed by ‘AND’ not (as well as, but)
Ex.-Ram is both tall and handsome.
Rule-17 Use of (Since, Because, For, As)
Ex.-It has been a year since I saw him
Since he is my father, I respect him.
I respect him because he is my father.
As he is my neighbour, I respect him
As he was not feeling well, he did not eat anything
Rule-18 ‘OR’ is used to introduce an alternative.
Ex.-Do or die.
Your purse ‘OR’ your life.
‘OR’ is used to mean ‘otherwise’
We must hasten or night will overtake us.
OR is used to show several Alternatives
He may study physics or chemistry or Biology or he may enter into trade.
Rule-19 ‘WHILE’ IS USED TO MEAN-
(i)During the time that, as long as
While there is hope there is life.
While he was sleeping, an enemy entered in the house.
(ii)At the same time that
The girl sang while the boys danced
Rule-20 ‘ONLY’ as a conjunction means-Except that
Ex.-A very pretty woman, only she squints a little .
English Short Notes: Conjunctions Rules
Shortcut Rule 1 : The co-relative conjunctions are used in pairs.
Not only – but also
Either – or
Neither – nor
Both – and
Though – yet
Whether – or
Please see that the pair is properly used.
Shortcut Rule 2 : After the adverbs “Hardly / Scarcely”, the conjunction ‘when or before’ should be used.
Shortcut Rule 3 : After ‘Rather / Other, the subordinating conjunction ‘Than should be used.
Shortcut Rule 4 : After the subordinating conjunction ‘lest’ the auxiliary ‘should’ is used.
Lest – for fear that / If it is not so.
Shortcut Rule 5 : The connecting word ‘that’ is used with the adjective phrase ‘the same/the only/superlative adjectives/all
Shortcut Rule 6 : The conjunction ‘or’ is used with not / never.
Shortcut Rule 7 : With the word ‘such’ the connective ‘that’ may be used.
Shortcut Rule 8 :
Until – Denotes Time
Unless – Denotes Condition
Shortcut Rule 9 : After the connective ‘because’ the words ‘ so / therefore / as’ are not used.
Shortcut Rule 10 : The adverb ‘Not’ should not be used with the connective ‘Till/unless/lest/until’ in that clause.
Shortcut Rule 11 : When ‘since’ is used as a conjunction should be preceded by present perfect tense and followed by a verb in the past tense to denote point of time.
Shortcut Rule 12 : With the conjunction ‘if’ ‘then’ should not be used.
Shortcut Rule 13 : When two objects are joined by ‘as well/besides/along with /together with / in addition to / except / including with, the verb agrees with the first subject in number
1. Don’t say: Have you taken admission in this college.
Say: Have you been admitted in this college.
2. Don’t say: Ask him to sit besides me while filling admission form.
Say: Ask him to sit beside me while filling admission form.
3. Don’t say: I need to complete the admission process until Saturday.
Say: I need to complete the admission process by Saturday.
4. Don’t say: My neighbor’s son lives in the boarding.
Say: My neighbor’s son lives in the boarding school.
5. Don’t say: The village girls go to school by foot.
Say: The village girls go to school on foot.
6. Don’t Say: She said, “You have a chance to win.”
Say: She said, “You have a chance of winning.”
7. Don’t Say: No less than ten students were injured in the accident.
Say: No fewer than ten students were injured in the accident.
8. Don’t say: Aditya graduated from college 10 years back.
Say: Aditya graduated from college 10 years ago.
Here, we get you 11 such common conversation errors about teachers along with some interesting ways to rectify them and use these sentences correctly.
Mistake 1: He said a lot of lies to the teacher.
Right thing to say: He told a lot of lies to the teacher.
Mistake 2: Mrs. Agarwal is my English teacher.
Right thing to say: Mrs. Agarwal is my teacher of English.
Explanation: When you say “teacher of English”, it means a teacher who teaches the subject English. But, when you say “English teacher”, it implies that you are talking about a teacher who belongs to England. So, “teacher of English” is the correct thing to say
Mistake 3: Our principal will take our test on Aptitude.
Right thing to say: Our principal will give us a test on Aptitude.
Mistake 4: Everyone should respect one’s teacher.
Right thing to say: Everyone should respect his teacher.
Generally, one is not used to refer to an individual but is only used to talk about people.
Though the word “everyone’ seems to be plural, but it is actually a singular pronoun used to refer to every single individual.
On the other hand, the pronoun “one’s” is used only when it is referred to oneself.
For e.g. One should take care of one’s belongings.
Mistake 5: The teacher will communicate to the Principal on this subject.
Right thing to say: The teacher will communicate with the Principal on this subject.
Mistake 6: I beg pardon from you
Right thing to say: I beg your pardon.
Explanation: If someone has done something wrong and you intend to draw their attention and alert them, ‘beg your pardon’ is the correct phrase to use.
On the other hand, ‘pardon me’ is a kind of apology to convey that you are sorry for doing something wrong or being impolite.
Mistake 7: Please shut up! I have lost my patience.
Right thing to say: Please shut up! I have lost patience.
Mistake 8: Can I know the name of your favourite teacher?
Right thing to say: May I know the name of your favourite teacher?
Explanation: The modal auxiliaries ‘may’ and ‘can’ are thought to be replaceable in the context of permission.
‘Can’ shows ‘capability’ to do something while ‘may’ is used when you ask for a permission from someone to do something.
Even if you ask for a permission using ‘may’, it is generally granted using ‘can’.
Mistake 9: Tomorrow, the classes will be at 11 a.m. in the morning.
Right thing to say: Tomorrow, the classes will be held at 11 in the morning.
Mistake 10: The examination is approaching near and the syllabus is not yet completed by the teacher.
Right thing to say: The examination is approaching and the syllabus is not yet completed by the teacher.
Explanation: When something approaches you, it gets nearer or closer to you in respect of time, space,etc.
So, the word approaching itself shows that the things are quite near or about to happen in the near future.
Mistake 11: The teacher explained everything in brief.
Right thing to say: The teacher explained everything in short.
Explanation: People use “shortly” to mean “small” or “soon” but it is not the same as “briefly”.
When you take a very less amount of time to explain something, it means you explain it briefly. But, when you explain something which is not very lengthy, it means you explain it shortly.
Something brief ends quickly after it has begun. Something short is not too long in length already.
So, here we get you some sentences which are commonly spoken incorrectly by many of us:
Mistake 1: My friend asked her that why she was late.
Right thing to say: My friend asked her why she was late.
Mistake 2: I am quite sorry to hear of your daughter’s failure.
Right thing to say: I am very sorry to hear of your daughter’s failure.
When you apologize to someone or are saddened by something, you want it to be as genuine as possible.
We usually use the words “so” and “very” to indicate something more. But, the word ‘quite’ shows limitation, which means “to some extent”.
Being “quite sorry “ to someone shows that you are saddened a to certain extent and not completely.
Mistake 3: First, I told him to correct his spelling mistakes.
Right thing to say: At first, I told him to correct his spelling mistakes.
Though the words ‘First’ and ‘at first’ seem to be replaceable but they are used in different contexts.
We usually use the phrase “At first” not only to show something that occurs “initially or in the beginning” but also while expressing the two contradictory ideas together. For e.g. At first, I tried to be calm but lost my temper later”.
On the other hand, the words ‘ First’ or ‘Firstly’ are preferable when you intend to show the sequence of the points ( especially while writing) or enlist certain things one after the other.
Mistake 4: The boy hanged his head in shame, when he came to know about his failure.
Right thing to say: The boy hung his head in shame, when he came to know about his failure.
Hung and Hanged are the past tense of “Hang” and so we often use them interchangeably. But, there is a slight difference in their usage.
We never use the word ‘hanged’ in general , it has a specific use. When we are referring to the killing or death of a person by hanging( either suicide or execution), we use “hanged”.
But, when someone or something is hung with no intention to kill, hung is the right word to use.
For e.g. They hung him by his arms and beat him. or The painting was hung on the wall.
To be precise, “hanged” is used in the sense when someone is put to death by hanging whereas “hung” is used in all other contexts.
Mistake 5: You can avoid to make mistakes.
Right thing to say: You can avoid making mistakes.
Mistake 6: You should immediately inform him our mistake.
Right thing to say: You should immediately inform him of our mistake.
Mistake 7: I forgave him for his fault.
Right thing to say: I forgave him his fault.
Read in to find out more such mistakes and the right sentence to speak in each situation:
Mistake 1: He gave a speech which received nationwide attention.
Right thing to say: He made a speech which received nationwide attention.
Mistake 2: After getting married, she decided to give the exam.
Right thing to say: After getting married, she decided to take the exam.
Giving and Taking are both correct in context of exams but are used in different ways.
If you are giving an examination, it means that you most likely are a teacher or supervisor who is conducting an examination.
But, taking an exam is an activity that refers to the students or the ones who are appearing in the exam.
So, a teacher gives an exam, while students take the exam.
Mistake 3: There is no other alternative.
Right thing to say: There is no alternative.
Mistake 4: She has learnt the speech word by word.
Right thing to say: She has learnt the speech word for word.
The phrase “Word by word” means “one word at a time” while “Word for word” describes the relationship between two sets of words.
When you repeatedly say or recite something exactly as said or written by someone else, this means you memorize it word for word. But, when you read or learn something “word by word”, you read it one after the other or sequentially.
Word for word shows accuracy while word by word is about the method you use to learn something.
Mistake 5: Sagar is good in English. He can easily communicate with our foreign clients.
Right thing to say: Sagar is good at English. He can easily communicate with our foreign clients.
‘To be good at something’ shows that you excel at doing certain things or activities. But , being good in something shows your speciality or ability in doing the things.
Mistake 6: Kiran secured only passing marks in English.
Right thing to say: Kiran secured only pass marks in English.
Mistake 7: Hardworking children have a thirst of knowledge.
Right thing to say: Hardworking children have a thirst for knowledge.
Mistake 8: My daughter pays more attention to music than study.
Right thing to say: My daughter pays more attention to music than to study.
Mistake 9: It is impossible to score cent percent marks in English grammar.
Right thing to say: It is impossible to score hundred percent marks in English grammar.
When we actually intend to say, 100% or for sure, we often say “cent percent”. This is actually not the correct thing to say.
So, if you mean he scored full marks, say he scored “hundred percent” marks.
Mistake 10: He is fail in all the subjects.
Right thing to say: He has failed in all the subjects.
Mistake 11: You can have a simple answer of this question.
Right thing to say: You can have a simple answer to this question.
We get you such 9 most common mistakes and the ways to get them right.
Mistake 1: Please see a dictionary for knowing the meaning of this word.
Right thing to say: Please consult a dictionary to find our the meaning of this word.
Mistake 2: She has just read two-fifth of this book.
Right thing to say: She has just read two-fifths of this book.
As you are referring to the fraction “two-fifth”, the word “two” is a plural form. So, the correct way to refer to this fraction would also be plural as “two-fifths”.
Mistake 3: Please open your book on page fifty-two.
Right thing to say: Please open your book at page fifty-two.
When you are referring to a particular portion of any page, it means you are talking about the text or content on that page and so, you should prefer “on the page”.
For e.g. The answer is on page 15.
But, when you say“at page” , it means you are referring to entire content on the page .
Mistake 4: My mother likes the poetries of Ramanand.
Right thing to say: My mother likes the poetry of Ramanand.
Mistake 5: I have written the answer paper with ink.
Right thing to say: I have written the answer paper in ink.
When you write with something, it indicates your medium of writing or a tool that you use for writing. For e.g. Pen, pencil, chalk, etc.
But, when you write in something, it shows your style of writing or the way (method) in which you want your writing to appear either in ink , in gel etc.
Mistake 6: I want a red pen to write.
Right thing to say: I want a red pen to write with.
Mistake 7: My mother will teach you reading and writing Hindi.
Right thing to say: My mother will teach you how to read and write Hindi.
Mistake 8: Can you please tell me the cost of this book?
Right thing to say: Can you please tell me the price of this book?
We often tend to use ‘cost’ and ‘price’ interchangeably when we mean to talk about the amount of money required to buy something. However, they have different meanings.
When you purchase an item, the amount of money that you pay to the seller is a price. But, the amount of money or expenses which the seller spends on manufacturing of that product is referred to its cost .
For e.g. A car may cost Rs. 7 lakhs but it may be priced at Rs. 10 lakhs.
However, you may have additional expenses, like taxes, payment for transport, etc. All these add up to the “cost”.
So, the “price” is the amount that you charge for something, while the “cost” is the amount you pay to produce something.
Mistake 9: We decided to pass away our time in the library.
Right thing to say: We decided to pass our time in the library.
Pass away is a phrase used when someone dies. It is used to avoid saying ‘die’ when we think that that it might upset someone.
When you spend time by doing something that keeps you busy, you simply pass the time.
Read on to see the most common mistakes we commit while talking about them and learn to correct them:
Mistake 1: Sachin Tendulkar has made eighty runs.
Right thing to say: Sachin Tendulkar has scored eighty runs.
Mistake 2: Finishing his homework, he went to play cricket.
Right thing to say: Having finished his homework, he went to play cricket.
Mistake 3: Sania Mirza travels all the world to play Tennis
Right thing to say: Sania Mirza travels all over the world to play Tennis.
An expression ‘all the world’ refers to everybody or everything in the world while ‘all over the world’ implies something which is throughout the world.
Mistake 4: I didn’t cried when I lose the game.
Right thing to say: I didn’t cry when I lost the game.
Mistake 5: The prize will be divided between the four teams.
Right thing to say: The prize will be divided among the four teams.
You can use the word ‘between’ when you are talking about two distinct, individual items which are clearly separated.
On the other hand, you use ‘among’ when you are talking about more than two (or multiple) things which cannot be clearly separated.
Mistake 6: He has been practicing football from 3 months.
Right thing to say: He has been practicing football since 3 months.
‘Since’ and ‘From’ both refer to the time -related actions and so are often used interchangeably by people. In reality, their usage is completely different and they are actually the replacements for each other..
Since indicates duration of an unfinished action, up to a point in the present while ‘from’ denotes time from starting to end.
When we talk about the event that has begun in the past, but is still an ongoing action yet to be completed, we prefer ‘since’. ‘From ‘ is used to express the point of time at which a specific activity starts and ends.
Mistake 7: We had a training session in this afternoon.
Right thing to say: We had a training session this afternoon.
Mistake 8: Both Virat as well as Gautam are selected to play the match.
Right thing to say: Both Virat and Gautam are selected to play the match.
Mistake 9: The committee has ten-thousand rupees in cash.
Right thing to say: The committee has only ten-thousand rupees.
Mistake 10: We were surprised by his sudden entry.
Right thing to say: We were surprised at his sudden entry.
Mistake 11: After the annual sports meet, the students asked a holiday.
Right thing to say: After the annual sports meet, the students asked for a holiday.
Mistake 12: School children were wounded while playing football match.
Right thing to say: School children were injured while playing football match.
If you are hurt in some part of your body unintentionally, this means that you get injured. For e.g. if the knife falls and you get a bad cut on your arm, you have an injury because it happened accidently and not intentionally by someone to harm you.
On the other hand, a wound is when there is tissue damage on your body due to direct aggression against you. If you got a bad cut on your arm due to fight, you have a wound.
People also opine that even if an injury occurs intentionally, but until blood is drawn, it is not a wound.
For e.g. A dislocated joint of an elbow caused due to fight is an injury and not a wound.
However, all wounds can be injuries, but all injuries are not wounds.
Mistake 1: My all friends are very excited to attend the graduation ceremony.
Right thing to say: All my friends are very excited to attend the graduation ceremony.
Mistake 2: Jhanvi is our mutual friend.
Right thing to say: Jhanvi is our common friend.
When something is shared by many, it is “common”. But, when
someone reciprocates the same way as the other person does, they both are mutually related.
Being mutual friends, though you reciprocate friendly feelings towards one another, your friend cannot be a “reciprocal friend” but can be referred to as a “friend in common”.
Mistake 3: Accompanied with my friends, I went to attend the party.
Right thing to say: Accompanied by my friends, I went to attend the party.
Mistake 4: No one likes talking to her, because she is very proudy and never respects anyone.
Right thing to say: No one likes talking to her, because she is very proud and never respects anyone.
In English, there is no such word like ‘proudy’. If you intend to describe someone who are proud of themselves or to show one’s importance excessively, ‘proud’ is the correct word to use.
Alternatively, we may use various synonyms of “proud “like self important, prideful or arrogant but not the word “proudy”.
Mistake 5: Vikram and Sahil are fast enemies.
Right thing to say: Vikram and Sahil are sworn enemies.
Mistake 6: At present, all my friends are outside India.
Right thing to say: At present, all my friends are out of India.
When someone is not in the country, they are ‘out of the country’. Outside is usually the external side of something.
Mistake 7: One of my friend lives in London.
Right thing to say: One of my friends lives in London.
When you say, “one of your friends”, you mean that you have many friends from whom you are discussing about or referring to one friend.
The phrase “one of the” implies “one of the many”, and “many” is plural. However, the noun (friends) used after the phrase “one of the /my” always has to be plural.